Friday, November 11, 2011

Paris. Napoleon's Tomb, Les Invalides; Napoleon Timeline

Hotel des Invalides. This was originally a hospital, and dates from 1676. At that time, work ordered by Louis XIV was completed to house and care for 7,000 wounded, crippled, soldiers. Napoleon's brothers rest here, and later a son, as does Napoleon himself.


Napoleon's Tomb, Paris, Les Invalides

Napoleon as a man and a concept is a lifetime for research.  For Napoleon's tomb, this narrow bit, see http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paris/hist/invalides.html . 
See also http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bonaparte_napoleon.shtml , He conquered most of Europe.  BBC cites these main events:

1769 - Napoleon born, Corsica; military training
179697 - Commander French Army in Italy; forced Austrians and others to make peace; Napoleon conducts campaigns, crosses Alps, see http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/campaign_napoleon_italy_1796.html.  Road signs crossing the Grand San Bernardino Pass show his hat, see Swiss side at http://switzerlandroadways.blogspot.com/2009/11/swiss-side-gran-san-bernardo-pass-great.html ;
Appreciate the terrain with a continuance to the Italian side, at http://italyroadways.blogspot.com/2009/11/italian-side-alps-gran-san-bernardo.html
1798 -Conquered Ottomans in Egypt (trying to impact British trade routes there); then British defeated his fleet, Battle of Nile
1799 - New alliances against France:  British with Austrians and Russians.  Napoleon conducts coup and becomes Consul
When? ______: Napoleon marries Josephine de Beauharnais
1800 - Defeats Austrians at Marengo, Italy, see http://www.napoleonguide.com/battle_marengo.htm;  negotiates general Europe peace with French as major power. Marengo: also the name and myth of his horse, http://www.napoleon-series.org/reviews/biographies/c_hamilton.html
1802 - Napoleon becomes Consul for life. 
1803 - Britain institutes war against France, with allies Austria and Russia
1804 - Napoleon becomes Emperor, centralizes government, creates bank, reinstates Catholicism as state religion, institutes reforms in law, the Napoleonic Code, sets up Holland and Westphalia (see the Bonaparte Docks at Antwerp, probably connected, http://belgiumroadways.blogspot.com/2006/07/antwerp-worlds-greatest-host-pan-earth.html
1805 - Napoleon sought to invade Britain, but British navy defeats Napoleon at Trafalgar. Napoleon then turns on Russia and Austria and is victorious at Austerlitz, now in Czech Republic.
1808 - "Peninsular war" and then follow a series of defeats
1810 - Napoleon has marriage to Josephine annulled on grounds of her childlessness; and marries daughter of Austrian emperor
1811 - Napoleon and new wife have son, also named Napoleon
1812 - Napoleon invades Russia, disaster.
1814 - British, Austrians and Russians ally and take Paris (or were there other allies by that time?).  Napoleon is exiled to island of Elba
1815 - Napoleon escapes, reorganizes for march on Paris, is defeated at Waterloo.  Napoleon is imprisoned, island of St. Helena
1821 - Napoleon dies

Then comes Napoleon's annexation of Prussian lands, the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, apparently Holland and Westphalia were created (how? - Prussian lands?); and Napoleon installs his friends, relatives, in power in Spain, Italy, Naples, Sweden, Holland and Westphalia. 

See also http://www.parisdigest.com/monument/napoleongrave .  For music for the Dome Church where he lies, listen at http://www.geocities.com/intrepidberkeleyexplorer/Page16B.